History and Text of Kyoto Portocol Kyoto Protocol Kyoto 1997
In addition to this “routine” work on advancing the implementation of the Convention, Parties launched a new round of negotiations as COP 1 (Berlin, March/April 1995) to strengthen the commitments of Annex I Parties. These negotiations resulted in the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol at COP 3 (Kyoto, December, 1997). The Kyoto Protocol, however, left many of its operational details unresolved and referred these to the COP and subsidiary bodies for further negotiation. The Kyoto Protocol was signed by 84 Parties, and has received some 39 ratification. Many Annex I Parties, however, stated that they needed to have a clearer picture of the operational details of the Protocol before they could ratify it.
At COP 4 (Buenos Aires, November 1998), Parties adopted the so-called “Buenos Aires Plan of Action”, setting out a program of work both to advance the implementation of the Convention and to flesh out the operational details of the Kyoto Protocol. This program of work was conducted in the subsidiary bodies and at COP 5 (Bonn, October/November 1999), with a deadline of COP 6 (The Hague, November 2000). However, Parties were unable to reach agreement on package or decisions on all issues under the Buenos Aires Plan of Action at that session. Nevertheless, they decided to meet again in a resumed session of COP 6 to try once more to resolve their differences.
At COP 6, part II ( Bonn, July 2001), Parties finally succeeded in adopting the Bonn Agreement on the Implementation of the Buenos Aires Plan of Action, registering the political agreement on key issues under the Buenos Aires Plan of Action . Parties also completed their work on a set of detailed decisions based on the Bonn Agreements, which were forwarded to COP 7 for formal adoption. Work was outstanding on a small number of decisions, however, and these were referred to COP 7 for further negotiation.
Status of the Kyoto Protocol Ratification
Kyoto Protocol to enter into force 16 February 2005 Bonn, 18 November 2004 – The 90-day countdown to the Kyoto Protocol’s entry into force was triggered today by the receipt of the Russian Federation’s instrument of ratification by the United Nations Secretary-General. The Protocol will become legally binding on its 128 Parties on 16 February 2005.
“A period of uncertainty has closed. Climate change is ready to take its place again at the top of the global agenda,” said Joke Waller-Hunter, Executive Secretary of the Climate Change Secretariat, which services the UN Climate Change Convention and its Kyoto Protocol.
“Next month’s ministerial conference in Buenos Aires will provide the next major opportunity for governments, businesses and civil society to promote the innovative new policies and technologies that will create the climate-friendly economy of the future,” she said.
COP 7 and the Marrakesh Accords
At COP 7 (Marrakesh, October/November 2001), negotiators adopted a comprehensive package of decisions known as the Marrakesh Accords, which marked the close of a major negotiating cycle in the climate change process. The Accords set out the details of the Kyoto Protocol’s rulebook and include important decisions on Convention issues. By finalizing the rules, the Marrakesh Accords open the way for countries to pursue ratification of the protocol and bring it into force.
The Accords specify, among other things, how to measure emissions and reductions, the extent to which carbon dioxide absorbed by carbon sinks can be counted towards the Kyoto targets, how to project-based cooperative mechanisms and emissions trading systems will work, and the rules for ensuring compliance with commitments. COP 7 also adopted decisions based on the Bonn Agreements, many of which aim to increase the flow of financial and technological support. The Accords establish a special climate change fund, a fund for least developed countries, and a fund to help developing countries adopt to climate change impacts, obtain clean technologies, and limit the growth in their emissions. A new Adaptation Fund will finance concrete adaptation projects and programs. In addition, the Marrakesh Ministerial Declaration was adopted as an input into the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. The Declaration emphasizes the contribution that action on climate change can make to sustainable development and cells for capacity building, technology innovation, and cooperation with the biodiversity and desertification conventions.
COP 10 marked the 10th anniversary of the entry into force of the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which served as a central theme for the meeting. In addition to the accomplishments of the past ten years and future challenges, discussions at COP 10 highlighted a range of climate-related issues including, the impacts of climate change and adaptation measures, mitigation policies and their impacts, and technology. Participants had also taken stock of the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol. more
COP 11 and COP/MOP 1
Canada will host the first meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in Montreal in conjunction with the eleventh session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention. The Conference will take place from 28 November to 9 December 2005 at the Palais des Congrès de Montréal. more
The architecture of the KP regime: What makes KP tick?
The Kyoto Protocol is made up of essential architecture that has been built and shaped over almost two decades of experience, hard work and political will. The beating heart of KP is made up of:
Reporting and verification procedures;
Flexible market-based mechanisms, which in turn have their own governance procedures; and
A compliance system.
So, two things make KP tick.
The first was binding emissions reduction commitments for developed country parties. This meant the space to pollute was limited, and what is scarce and essential commands a price. Greenhouse gas emissions— most prevalently carbon dioxide— became a new commodity. KP now began to internalise what was now recognised as an unpriced externality.
This leads us to the second, the flexible market mechanisms of the KP, based on the trade of emissions permits. KP countries bound to targets have to meet them largely through domestic action— that is, to reduce their emissions onshore. But they can meet part of their targets through three "market-based mechanisms" that ideally encourage GHG abatement to start where it is most cost-effective-- for example, in the developing world. Quite simply, it does not matter where emissions are reduced, as long as they are removed from the planet's atmosphere. This has the parallel benefits of stimulating green investment in developing countries and of including the private sector in this endeavour to cut and hold steady GHG emissions at a safe level. It also makes "leap-frogging" more economical-- that is, the possibility to skip older, dirtier technology for newer, cleaner infrastructure and systems, with obvious longer-term benefits.
KP has prompted governments to put in place legislation and policies to meet their commitments, businesses to make climate-friendly investment decisions, and the formation of a carbon market.
The Kyoto Protocol compliance mechanism is designed to strengthen the Protocol's environmental integrity, support the carbon market's credibility and ensure transparency of accounting by Parties. Its objective is to facilitate, promote and enforce compliance with the commitments under the Protocol. It is among the most comprehensive and rigorous systems of compliance for a multilateral environmental agreement. A strong and effective compliance mechanism is key to the success of the implementation of the Protocol.
For more details on the Kyoto Protocol, its architecture and how it operates, click here.
For an overview of the relationship between the political, advisory and subsidiary bodies of the UNFCCC, please click here
Kyoto Protocol Bodies CMP
The Conference of the Parties (COP) serves as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. This is referred to as the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP).
The CMP meets annually during the same period as the COP. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to the Protocol are able to participate in the CMP as observers, but without the right to take decisions. The functions of the CMP relating to the Protocol are similar to those carried out by the COP for the Convention.
The first meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol was held in Montreal, Canada in December 2005, in conjunction with the eleventh session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 11).
Decisions were adopted that outline the path to future international action on climate change. The Parties to the Kyoto Protocol also formally adopted the “rulebook” of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the so-called ‘Marrakesh accords’, which sets the framework for implementation of the Protocol.
The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) these two permanent subsidiary bodies established under the Convention also serve the CMP.
The Bureau of the COP also serves the CMP. However, any member of the COP Bureau representing a non-Party to the Kyoto Protocol has to be replaced by a member representing a Kyoto Protocol Party.
Constituted Bodies under the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Executive Board
The CDM Executive Board supervises the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol and prepares decisions for the CMP. It undertakes a variety of tasks relating to the day-to-day operation of the CDM, including the accreditation of operational entities.
Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee
The Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee (JISC), under the authority and guidance of the CMP, inter alia, supervises the verification of emission reduction units (ERUs) generated by JI projects following the verification procedure under the JISC.
The compliance regime consists of aCompliance Committee made up of two branches: a Facilitative Branch and an Enforcement Branch.